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Are You a Grounded Person?

by Brian Dunning, Aug 12 2010

Quite often I’ll get an email suggesting some new woo topic, and some of these are so absurd that I have to laugh and say “There’s a new one.” I got one such email last week. There is a practice called Earthing, of which I had never before heard. The idea is that you connect yourself to the Earth, usually with some sort of wiring and electrodes. The obvious result: Improved health, of course.

Why should this be expected to have any kind of therapeutic value? It’s quite simple. Here is the explanation on the Earthing Institute’s home page:

In an age of rampant chronic disease, reconnecting with the Earth’s energy beneath our very feet provides a way back to better health. We are bioelectrical beings living on an electrical planet.

I hope that clears it up.

There seems to be a fundamental disconnect within the Earthing community. Half of the descriptions of Earthing say that it’s about transferring the Earth’s “energy” to your body; while the other half say the exact opposite, that it’s about electrically grounding yourself. Oh well, perhaps the research is still in its nascent stages.

So what’s the angle? Well, obviously, the sale of goofy products and services. They sell bedsheets costing hundreds of dollars, bands and straps to connect to your body, pads and mats to sit on or lay on, travel kits, and my favorite, a pad to lay on your car seat that you sit on (it “neutralizes micro-electrical charges on the body”). And don’t forget your pets: They also sell pet beds, in case Rover is not feeling quite in touch with the Earth’s “energy field”. If you’d like to get in on this action yourself, here is a nifty service offered by the Earthing Institute:

The Earthing Institute is pioneering the research and application of safe and effective biological grounding systems. The institute has unique expertise to test the validity of products designed for consumer or specialized usage. Products submitted to us will undergo detailed testing procedures. Upon approval they will be certified by the institute and manufacturers be authorized to use our “Bio logo” on their products. Costs vary depending upon the level of expertise required and the time needed to test individual products.

But of course, one shouldn’t simply assert that a new idea is goofy based on its face-value silliness. One should look at the research. A cursory search of PubMed did, indeed, turn up an impressive sounding study (“The biologic effects of grounding the human body during sleep as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain, and stress”) with the following abstract:

OBJECTIVES: Diurnal cortisol secretion levels were measured and circadian cortisol profiles were evaluated in a pilot study conducted to test the hypothesis that grounding the human body to earth during sleep will result in quantifiable changes in cortisol. It was also hypothesized that grounding the human body would result in changes in sleep, pain, and stress (anxiety, depression, irritability), as measured by subjective reporting. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Twelve (12) subjects with complaints of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were grounded to earth during sleep for 8 weeks in their own beds using a conductive mattress pad. Saliva tests were administered to establish pregrounding baseline cortisol levels. Levels were obtained at 4-hour intervals for a 24-hour period to determine the circadian cortisol profile. Cortisol testing was repeated at week 6. Subjective symptoms of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were reported daily throughout the 8-week test period. RESULTS: Measurable improvements in diurnal cortisol profiles were observed, with cortisol levels significantly reduced during night-time sleep. Subjects’ 24-hour circadian cortisol profiles showed a trend toward normalization. Subjectively reported symptoms, including sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress, were reduced or eliminated in nearly all subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that grounding the human body to earth (“earthing”) during sleep reduces night-time levels of cortisol and resynchronizes cortisol hormone secretion more in alignment with the natural 24-hour circadian rhythm profile. Changes were most apparent in females. Furthermore, subjective reporting indicates that grounding the human body to earth during sleep improves sleep and reduces pain and stress.

And moreover, a paper on an alternative health web site briefly described several such studies. Wow! Pretty impressive, isn’t it?

Well, not so much. First, the above study was published in none other than the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, which means that it was either not submitted to, or was rejected by, journals that have any sort of legitimate reputation. I didn’t purchase the article, but going by the abstract and by the descriptions of other studies in that PDF, all of these studies suffer from the same fatal flaws: No blinding at all, and no control groups at all. This means that the test subjects might as well have been wearing paper hats, and if told it would reduce their stress, it probably would have had the same effect. The small size of the study, 12 people, renders any result statistically useless; and my experience in such matters suggests there’s a good chance that these 12 people were very possibly employees and friends of the company selling the products.

Is it true that grounding yourself to absorb the Earth’s peaceful energy will cure all your ills? Maybe, but we wouldn’t know from these studies. Maybe we should all buy the products to find out.

48 Responses to “Are You a Grounded Person?”

  1. oldebabe says:

    Tho a new `wrinkle’, it’s just too silly to even comment on, IMO. And that this kind of foolishness is actually accepted by some people continues to be mind-boggling to me.

  2. I heard a version of this when I was living on floor 6 of a building. I was told it was “bad for my energy” to be so far from “mother earth.” I love how often it changes to “mother” earth when people are peddling bullshit.

  3. Brian says:

    Ha, I was just at a science museum that was using the good old Van de Graaff generator to make kids’ hair stand on end — thus reminding me that you have to stand on a special insulated stool to avoid being grounded.

  4. Dan says:

    In Avatar the giant smurfs plugged themselves into the planet to commune or whatever…good timing for the woo merchants…if I could have my conscience removed I’d be so rich.

  5. Carlos says:

    one thing that has been adequately demonstrated, I think, is that to assure successful and timely electrocution one should be properly earthed.

  6. William says:

    Perhaps grab a copy of the book which refers to many double blind studies with very conclusive evidence. There are thermal imaging studies completed among at least 15 Phd’s citing incredible results based on their independent blind studies. There is also a coach from a victorious USA Tour de France team who got incredible results from it and winning the tour de france is no small feat.

    As for peddling gimmicky products, they state categorically that you can get all the benefits mentioned by just standing barefoot on the ground for 30-40 minutes twice a day. Which is FREE. So you don’t have to purchase anything to receive the benefits.

    I truly believe you need to grab a copy of their book just in time for xmas. Who knows what benefits you might receive.

    • Rhonda says:

      I agree. People who know nothing about it can smugly talk together about how ridiculous this is, but unless you really research it yourself, you haven’t a clue. I thought it was hippy, tree hugging weird when I first saw something on it. Then I watched a video with Dr. Stephen Sinatra, a cardiologist who was humble enough to realize alternative medicine and conventional medicine don’t have to be mutually exclusive.

      Understand that properly done studies cost millions of dollars, and most are done by the government’s financing or pharmaceutical companies who profit greatly and can submit for publication whatever skews it to their product. When something is natural and not really going to make a lot of money, it is rarely studied in this way. Yet, Clint Ober has used his own money to get some studies done — double blind studies, although this blog didn’t mention them.

      Skeptical is fine, but cynical is stupid when it shuts you out from receiving something that just might benefit you in a big way. I have experienced this with skepticism and found out that it is beyond anything I would have believed. My husband, my 87 yr. old mom and I have all benefited in various ways and each of us is convinced. My husband rolled his eyes when I first mentioned it and tried it only because I did purchase the 1/2 sheet for sleeping on. He is so amazed and tells others about it. Do you really think it is natural to insulate yourself from the earth with rubber soled shoes?? Look at all the suffering people around you — something is not right in our modern society. This is part of the puzzle.

  7. Gunnar Swede says:

    People that write hoax all over something they have no idea about makes me laugh. To hang yourself out as an idiot like that is proving that the person that wrote it must be an idiot.
    Why not got (barefoot) to the library and borrow the book Earthing for free. Then go out and read it while lying barefoot on the grass in a park (for free) and educate yourself before going out screaming hoax on the net.
    Earthing is a revolutionary discovery and has helped thousands of people to a much improved health, including me. There are no words for how grateful I am to Clint Ober for this. I have my life back, thanks to sleeping grounded for only a month. Incredible is all I can say,

    This is something everybody should do on a regular basis, no question.

  8. Mike says:

    There’s a quite famous guy, Dave Asprey, who claims he measured his sleep score using the Zeo, and showed that a grounding mat improved his sleep. He does sell the product at, so he might not be entirely neutral.

    Still, what do you think?

  9. Shiva narayan Lal says:

    It is true that radicals moving in blood has to be neutralized by electrons. If you move bare footed on ground you are earthed and radicals will be neutralized. Even if grounding is needed a simple wire may be connected to toe and the earth of the house wiring at virtually no cost.The bANIYA CULT WILL BE HAPPY TO EARN FROM SELLING THE UNWANTED PRODUCTS.

  10. Laura says:

    Journal of Environmental and Public Health
    Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 291541, 8 pages
    Review Article
    Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth’s Surface Electrons

  11. PeterJ says:

    I’ve tried it and it works….especially where sleeping better is concern. However I never bought any of their products. I’m already paying for water, why should I do the same for free electrons? Used a homemade apparatus to get the job done. A simple wire that connects to ground the other end that’s connected to a foil paper wrapped around my foot. Must admit I looked silly but I got some promising.

    • PeterJ says:

      …promising results

    • carolyn says:

      I asked myself that question too. One because there is a theoretical risk of electrocution if you dont insert a current limiting device if something scrrws up in home wiring or thetes an electrical storm. And also to be fair here who has done all the hardyards to bring you that knowledge? At least consider donate r savings to charity if you are not one of the poor for whom clint makes his knowledge free to benefit like that other 3lectric pioneer Faraday.

  12. Eric Rowland says:

    Well, I am in my 78th year and must say that having tried earthing, I am astounded by the results. Whereas I used to sleep for a maximum of 5 hours, interrupted by having to go to the bathroom 3 or 4 times, I now get around eight hours a night of sound, refreshing sleep. And I feel so fresh during the day.
    As one who spent most of his working life in electronics, I have no fear at all of being connected to an earthing point. After all, most of the electrical appliances in every home are wired up to it, as are the metal water pipes and fittings.
    Earthing is supported by so many eminent members of the medical fraternity, Joseph Mercola, Stephen Sinatra, Clinton Ober and others, that there has to be some substance behind the reasoning.
    I, personally, am convinced of its value.

  13. Roberto Garcia says:

    i am 77 year old. always after my gim 45 minutes a week i feel muscular pain ( is natural) for many days. after i try grounding, the pain is gone in 24 hours. incredible. what i did. a piece of metal 10 X 20 connected with a plug (only the green wire)and i place my bare foot for 2 or 3 hours. great and chip.

  14. Martha Katona says:

    I use earthing products as much as I can. I am diabetic, and have proven, by use of my glucose meter, that earthing increases calorie burning, to the extent that I metabolize about 150 calories greater in a two hour period. Also, I had a bilateral mastectomy, and was in much pain. Just a few minutes on the earthing sheet completely took the pain away.
    The key is that earthing attacks inflammation in the body. It only makes sense to understand that free electrons travel to the point of highest inflammation (positive charge) and nullify it, thus reducing pain, swelling, and heat.

    I broke my arm, and my surgeon could not beleive how fast I healed. I had wrapped the earthing mat around my surgical scar, and when I went to see him, at six weeks after surgery, he said my healing was something he did not see until six months for other people.

    So, you can argue all you want. My body tells me different. I can actually feel a tingle coming from all earthing products, a reduction in pain which is immediate, a reduction in swelling. I have lymphedema as a result of the mastectomy. Every day, I come home from work with pain and swelling in my right arm. Every night I sleep on the earthing sheet, and every morning, when I wake up, the pain and swelling and fever of the lymphedema is gone. This does not happen when I sleep on a regular sheet.

    Stay open for new information, guys. It can save your lives.

  15. Martha Katona says:

    According to the National Sales Mgr. at they did a test of animals in a grounded cage vs animals in an ungrounded cage. Same food, same water. The grounded animals lost 10 % of their weight.

    This backs up my observation of increased calorie burning. Obviously, the body has a limit on weight lost this way – the mice only lost 10% of their weight, then weight loss stopped. And, indeed, I have not wasted away from grounding. But the glucose meter does not lie. Diabetes is a horrible disease, but you can count on blood sugar to reflect calorie burning. It is definitely increased when I am grounded.

  16. Martha Katona says:

    As for lightning strikes, my husband, who is an electrical engineer, says the earthing people have incorporated a 100,000 ohm resistor into each piece of earthing equipment. He says this is more than sufficient to protect against lightning strikes.

  17. jobrahjobrah says:

    “your husband” said that right……lol

  18. Rich Shewmaker says:

    Because the safety of many people depends on their performance of their jobs, airline pilots should be required to be grounded at all times during take-offs and landings. Especially landings, which would better be called “Earthings.”

  19. Chris Bennett says:

    I think this is easier for people with persistent pain than someone relatively healthy to believe. I had persistent ibs pain. I was trying to move towards a primal diet to get rid off it with marginal improvement. When I heard of earthing I didn’t believe it would work but thought it was free so why not try it. Within 15 mins of earthing the pain had gone. It could be a placebo effect but I don’t think it is.
    I would like to see some bigger studies done on this to see what is going on but I think it is promising. Personally I now have better sleep, better digestion and no ibs pain and I am not being so strict on my diet. But I’m just a fool for believing this? I havnt spent any money on earthing.

  20. Martha Katona says:

    The key to understanding earthing is that free electrons from the earth or grounding merchandise travel to the point of highest inflammation in the body. For Chris, it was his intestines. For me, it was my swollen and lymphedemic arm. The pain is relieved and more, for earthing resets the cortisol cycles and calms you down. I will never sleep another night without being grounded. Mother Earth’s electromagnetic field is far stronger than any EMF interference, and will literally comfort you and kill pain. It is unfortunate that most people who are not in pain will not give it the credit it deserves, becauase they can’t sense the relief it brings.

  21. Fly On The Wall says:

    I have been earthing myself at night for over 6 months now and I still have pain from my plantar fasciitis. I still only average 5-6 hours of sleep though but I still seem to have enough energy to get through the day. I’ll still keep doing the earthing at night as it is free but it would be nice to see some actual results.

    • Brian Dunning says:

      There are plenty of good treatments for plantar fasciitis, but grounding is not among them. Have you gone to a podiatrist?

  22. Jared says:

    *facepalm* Rewind yourselves a little bit. Instead of trying to explain why negatively charged electrons would gravitate to positively charged areas, how about we begin with the step before that. Why are any parts of our body positively charged? Can any of your earthers provide one shred of evidence, a study, a scientific principle, or anything, that indicates inflammation has anything whatsoever to do with positive charges? Inflammation is just inflammation. The tissue is for whatever reason, inflamed. If you are playing tennis and you have inflammation in your elbow afterwards, it’s not because that part of your body became positively charged, it’s because hitting the ball puts pressure on that joint and eventually the tissue of the joint has had enough and swells up as part of a natural process. In order to let your brain know that inflammation has occured in that joint, your nerves register it as pain.

    Obviously placebo effect has been mentioned already, but have any of you actually considered why placebo effect is a factor? Two things:

    Pain is a product of our brains and can be controlled by the brain itself, through chemical reactions that are the product of natural functions, or our conscious efforts. We have natural ways to deal with pain built into our body, which can make perceived pain very subjective. For instance if you start going into shock, pain generally decreases because the brain is releasing chemicals to stop the nerve response to pain.

    There is also the ability to deal with pain mentally. People who are trained to endure pain can often withstand much more pain than the average person, for instance a professional fighter that keeps fighting after they’ve been punched a hundred times and their eyes are swelled nearly shut.

    So apply this to earthing in a theoretical situation. Before a placebo you were in pain so you were down emotionally overall. This emotional state carries with it chemical difference in your brain. Then someone offers you something they claim is amazing, and they really reel you in with the hope that your pain will decrease. This hope improves your emotional situation overall. The effect is another change chemically in your brain. Perhaps more dopamine among other things. Also mentally you are more positive so pain seems more bearable, and the moments you note where you feel no pain at all, are highlighted even more.

    Do you see maybe why scientists or just scientifically minded individuals would be skeptical without any actual scientific theory they can test to see if it’s having a real reaction on your body? They can test in a lab what happens when they introduce a pain reducing drug to your body in a number of ways that they can’t with “some earth energy in your body.”

    If you aren’t spending money on earthing it doesn’t bother me much, but for those that go all out and buy hundreds of dollars worth of products from their website, you are feeding a con man, in exchange for hope. Hope you could have been finding from your own sources.

    • tm says:

      i particularly find it less than amusing that the very uninformed, fearful, and uneducated find it so difficult to embark on sincere inquiry.

      all the uneducated should review the 2003 electrophysiologist study by Gaetan Chevalier and Kazuhito Mori at the CA Inst. for Human Science. this was the randomized, double blind study all the sheep need to hear about before they can even venture out into anything unknown to their fearful, myopic little minds.

      isnt it laughable that everythign that has been discovered to date was once scoffed at, witnessed yet again by the bumpkins on this set of comments that seemingly dont get out much, and to large degree the author? but guess what sheep, these “discoveries” were true long before the closed minds finally came around to embracing it. interesting yet still, is that none of the sheep ever seem to put two and two together and repent for their ridiculous witch hunts, or other heinous actions. low character traits seem to flock together dont they.

      follow this crowd and be sheep for your whole life. unfortunately, that is where most of the boob tube, social media trolling, brainwashed, zombied, fear-based sheep will end up.

      disgusted with the lot. enjoy your life in the pitch black night.

    • Keith Fecteau says:

      I still can’t believe how many people have purchased compasses, actually believing that the needle magically points to some fictitious magnetic north. Those compass sellers sure have us fooled.

      I bought a multimeter and measured that I had a 2 VAC potential on my body while sitting on the couch. If I move my shod foot towards an electrical cord, it jumps to 8 VAC. Lying in bed, I measure a potential of 4 VAC. If I touch a wire connected to a grounding rod, the measured potential drops to < 0.01 VAC. Oh, but wait, there's no evidence that the multimeter that I purchased is even measuring anything. Damn, now I've been fooled by a multimeter salesman.

      I might have to pay for water, but earthing is free.

      • Stewpid says:

        ok, so what? you’re still not saying anything. why does that matter? and if your answer is just citing anecdotal evidence from the earthing sales pamphlet (greatest health discovery on earth? even if it were true it would sound like sensationalism)then don’t bother.

  23. dennis child says:

    keep it simple place raw silk in the bed connected to earth it connectes to the etheric body which is part of your aura all disease starts in the aura , also see zeta potential of blood best regards dc

  24. Sye says:

    I have to agree with a lot of the people saying good things about Earthing in the comments here.

    Almost all of the studies on Earthing were double blind and the findings were significant, if not profound.

    I understand how a person might be a bit skeptical about something they’ve never heard of before, but once you look more into this you’ll find the evidence for the benefits of Earthing is solid.

  25. Laura says:

    “you’ll find the evidence for the benefits of Earthing is solid.”
    The evidence is close to none.
    I read an assertion that grounding one’s body creates a Faraday cage effect, shielding the body from ambient EM fields. Doubtful because Faraday cages are usually a conducting shield outside the body.
    Also, the idea is that it’s good for the body to be grounded to the natural voltage changes of the earth. Possible – there’s a natural circulation of charge between the ground and the atmosphere and a voltage gradient of 100V/m with altitude (!) and maybe it’s better for one’s body to be grounded in that voltage gradient. The atmosphere is normally positively charged relative to the earth, but how much that charge builds up on the body and if it has a bad effect, isn’t clear.

    • alfred wenzl says:

      “how much that charge builds up on the body and if it has a bad effect, isn’t clear.”
      Unless you bother to measure it.
      And you bother to look at blood samples before and after grounding.
      But if you prefer to be blind you may remain blind.

  26. Martha Katona says:

    The earth, or ground, is negatively charged. The atmosphere, due to rotation in the Shuman resonance and the ionosphere is positively charged (over the earth, lightning strikes contribute). By earthing, or grounding, you are placing yourself in the stream of negatively charged energy. The Chinese knew about this many centuries ago. It is the yin and yang.

    The astronauts who get launched into outer space have no connection to the negatively charged earth. Nasa has had to generate those energies for them, because we get sick without both yin and yang. This is where the scalar watches came from. They have a Mobius strip electrode which does generate the negative field the astronauts are missing. Thus the work of people using scalar fields. You can travel with a scalar watch, or you can just go outside and put your bare feet on the ground, preferably in wet grass or on wet concrete or sand. You can actually feel the tingle, and you can feel lighting strikes if you stand on the earth during a storm. Simplicity itself. But people who live in their brains only will never get it, because this is body knowledge.

  27. Martha Katona says:

    And yes, inflammation is positively charged. So are most invasive bacteria, viruses, and cancer. Your body uses antioxidants to disarm them. Grounding is the best free source of antioxidants there is.

    The PH levels of the body determine how much oxygen you can carry. By raising the PH level by one point on the PH scale, you can carry 10 times more oxygen, because the PH scale is logarithmic. This is why alkalinity is necessary for health. And grounding increases alkalinity.

  28. Ophiolog says:

    People will believe anything if it’s incredible enough. A handful of preliminary studies in so few subjects is not enough evidence to go on. Study the history of the placebo response and you’ll find that it can last far longer than you might suppose. Once it wears off, however, the condition can back with a vengeance.

  29. Martha Katona says:

    So, to summarize, the surface of the earth is negatively charged, and you can absorb free electrons from it. These electrons go to the point of highest inflammation and help neutralize it.
    You can see some amazing pictures of people who had inflamed and purple legs from diabetes who got control of the inflammation with grounding. These pics are in the book by Clint Ober called “Earthing: The Most Important Health Discovery Ever?”. Dr. Stephen Sinatra, world famous heart specialist comments in the forward. Clint Ober was a media mogul who discovered the phenomena when he decided to see what happened when he started grounding people. Among other phenomena: cessation of pain, stimulated circulation, snoring gets better (bet you did not know that snoring is an inflammatory condition), normalization of cortisol cycles that help people destress, etc, etc, etc. I myself have discovered that I burn more calories when grounded, as measured on my glucose meter.

    Before you make any judgements, please read the book.

  30. Bill Jones says:

    One of my patients just brought me this book. What a load of crap . . . and I AM A CHIRO!

    • alfred wenzl says:

      “What a load of crap . . . and I AM A CHIRO!”
      Well, then you really should know about it!

    • GPirnat says:

      Come on Bill, Does being a “CHIRO” somehow validate the notion that you are open minded or that one “load of crap” follows another?

  31. bharat chheda says:

    I salute the inventor of earthing concept and benefits to the human being.( Mr. Clint Ober).
    I have benefited a lot due to earthing. I feel very good and energetic throuout the day. I sleep better after earthing.

  32. Drew. says:

    Some of the most narrow minded, misinformed people I know are doctors. I would not take being a chiro as any credible way of dissing this theory. What would a chiro possibly know about this subject. Probably about as much as a dentist would know about plastic surgery. I’m for earthing. It encourages us in our natural state and that in itself is proof enough. Millions of years evolving in a particular way cannot be ignored. The more disconnect we are the further we drift from what really matters. Just take of your blinkers and look around. We as a species have messed it all up by our lack of regard and disconnected relationship with our living environment.

  33. Jim says:

    Your understanding of anatomy and science, though complex enough, is utterly skewed. You have used true principles (yes, the pH scale IS logarithmic) in the wrong context (Oxygen dissolves in blood, blood pH CANNOT change significantly or our biochemistry doesn’t work – we die). I am truly glad that you and others are experiencing relief. Your unexacting belief may indeed make Your placebo effect more powerful than the best medication and lifestyles available, for you.
    HOWEVER, this is a skeptic site … people come here for an overview of subjects by highly educated individuals. Users will want more than just a few ‘scientific’-ish articles proving your point, particularly when it goes against the status quo and intelligence of the majority of the millions of scientifically minded people.
    You will have to do more than have a very basic understanding of anatomy and chemistry to convince anyone who’s ever googled the word skeptic of your unverified claims.
    Complex, self-fulfilling understandings and non-peer-reviewed books are NO substitute for a lifetime dedicated to learning through the slow, reliable scientific method which is all we have to move us forward. I once subscribed to many Alternativisms too *shame*. I still have little faith in GP’s, pharmacies, corporations etc. But to throw out respected research is the most foolish backward step we could take. Your advice is downright dangerous, especially in this age where people are pleased with themselves just for being smart enough to know when something is complex but are not aware that they are not smart enough to know when something is true or false. Or are too lazy/proud to spend some time researching the facts, studies, theories or at least general consensus!

  34. Jim says:

    Thanks to the author of the blog. It gets harder to separate fact from fiction daily – what with science becoming far-out and technology so futuristic and fantasy-media so dominant in our lives (not to mention rampant drug use). XD
    I expected this to be bunkum, I expected a comment-section with morons. It’s just so nice to be able to: google “>subject< + skeptic" and see what frustrated, rational, skeptical people think about something.
    Also, after recently learning that we produce nitric oxide through nasal breathing, nothing would surprise me anymore (seriously, that piece of recent info threw me right out of my normal, safe, rational zone). Thanks and regards and SCIENCE, ftw. :)

  35. clarkt says:

    You neglect to mention that this study was published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Environmental and Public Health, , and that the researchers include scientists from the University of Connecticut School of Medicine and The University of California Department of Developmental and Cell Biology. You also fail address several other salient points outlined in the article.

    But doing so would undermine your belief system, right?

  36. thomasR says:

    Can somebody explain why negative charge (electrons) should flow to inflammation sites in the human body? My understanding is that such sites are characterised in part by the presence of ‘free radicals’, which are molecules which contain unpaired electrons. Such species are highly chemically reactive, but they are not electrically charged